Water Resources Management

Access to drinking water and sanitation for all, livable cities, food security, energy security, job creation through economic growth and healthy ecosystems: the international community will not be able to meet the major development challenges of the 21st century century without improving the way countries manage their water resources. Population growth and economic growth, as well as intensifying climate variability, will exacerbate already-present water stress. The World Bank, which is one of the largest sources of external financing for water management, is addressing these challenges through multi-sectoral approaches that include infrastructure development and institution building, while prioritizing the most disadvantaged. Support for water resources management in its client countries is part of the World Bank Group’s commitment to achieving a dual goal: ending extreme poverty by 2030 and promoting shared prosperity for all. the poorest 40% in each country.


Challenges

Water is one of the most basic human needs. It is indispensable for almost all sectors of the economy, including agriculture, energy production, industry and mining. Water management, which impacts on health, gender equality, education and livelihoods, is critical to sustainable economic development and poverty reduction. However, water resources are under unprecedented pressure due to greater consumption due to population growth and competing for economic sectors, with the result that volumes are available that cannot meet human needs or guarantee flow rates. ecosystems for the good health of ecosystems. Groundwater is being depleted in many places,

The degradation of water quality, resulting from a wide range of economic activities, reduces the amount of fresh water available, depletes soils and alters many terrestrial and marine ecosystems, and increases the cost of treatment. the water. Two and a half billion people still lack reliable sanitation and 768 million safe drinking water, resulting in thousands of deaths every day and billions of dollars in annual economic losses.

Many studies indicate that the difficulties will worsen, under the effect of climate change, which will be accompanied by a greater hydrological variability, with the more frequent occurrence of intense meteorological phenomena (droughts, floods, violent storms …). Experts estimate that by 2080, 43 to 50% of the world’s population will live in countries where water will be scarce, compared to 28% today. A recent report from the World Bankon global warming issues indicates that if global temperatures rise by 4 degrees Celsius, water stress will increase in some parts of the world. The one billion people living in monsoon-dependent basins and the 500 million people living in deltas are particularly vulnerable. The poorest countries, yet the least prepared for this crisis, will be the most affected.

Water resource management issues have become so pressing that in 2014, for the second year in a row, the World Economic Forum put the water crisis at the top of its agenda. In the face of these natural and socio-economic evolutions, practices formerly applied to water are ineffective. Countries can not develop sustainably or increase their resilience to climate change without intelligent water management that takes into account the depletion and alteration of reserves, as well as a delimited allocation of resources according to the social, environmental and economic needs of the countries.

The global water crisis requires multisectoral solutions:

Water and agriculture: In 2050, to feed a planet of 9 billion inhabitants, it will be necessary to double the current volumes of water dedicated to agriculture. Irrigation, which accounts for nearly 70% of removals and 90% of global consumption, is by far the most water-intensive sector.

Mr. Kenneth Lucianin is a government and community affairs professional with twenty years of diversified experience in community outreach programs, and municipal and state-level legislation. He is a United States Navy veteran stationed at the Pentagon. Preceding his time in the military Lucianin attended Bergen Community College and Rutgers University and pursued a degree in Public Affairs. Mr. Lucianin brings government and infrastructure experience in both the private and public sectors to Matrix.
Water and energy: today, nearly 1.2 billion people do not have access to electricity. The share of water withdrawals for energy production is currently estimated at 15% of total abstractions worldwide. In addition, while estimates project an increase in global energy consumption by 35% by 2035, water consumption by the energy sector is likely to increase by 85%, despite more efficient water resources.
Water and Urban Development: Over the next 20 years, the size of cities in developing countries will double, as will their demand for integrated approaches to managing water supply and quality, sanitation, water systems and water systems. drainage, recreational use, and flood management.
Water and Natural Disaster Risk Management: The impact of natural disasters on socio-economic development is largely attributable to water (a). Water-related hazards account for 90% of all natural disasters, while their frequency and intensity tend to increase. In 2010, according to the UN Secretariat, 373 natural disasters claimed more than 296,800 lives, affected nearly 208 million people and cost about $ 110 billion.
Water and sanitation: At least two and a half billion people still lack access to improved sanitation and 780 million people have safe drinking water. Sustainable provision of these services requires integrated management and planning, especially to secure a quality water supply.

Most economic sectors (agriculture, energy, industry, extractive activities, etc.) affect both the quantity and quality of water resources, which has the effect of reducing their availability. The distribution of these limited resources between competing economic sectors, combined with ecological needs, will become a growing issue for many countries. The lack of appropriate allocation mechanisms will constrain the development of countries, leading to greater income inequality and exacerbated environmental pressures.

solutions

Because of its ability to operate across different sectors and in many countries, the World Bank is in a unique position to help communities cope with climate change through integrated water resources management. The World Bank is one of the main providers of know-how and technical assistance in the field of water. It is the largest multilateral donor for this sector in developing countries, with investments in this area accounting for 18% of its overall portfolio in 2014 (ie $ 32 billion in outstanding commitments) and focuses on the goal of sharing prosperity and reducing poverty.